What are the common congenital abnormalities of kidney?

What are the common congenital abnormalities of kidney?

INTRODUCTION

  • Double Ureter or Ureteral Duplication.
  • Ureteropelvic Junction (UPJ) Obstruction.
  • Horseshoe Kidney or Renal Fusion.
  • Posterior Urethral Valves and Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS)
  • Obstructive Versus Nonobstructive Renal Dysplasia.
  • Nonmotile Ciliopathies and Congenital Renal Diseases.
  • Meckel–Gruber Syndrome.

What is the most common congenital renal anomaly?

Renal agenesis Fetal demise is common. Unilateral renal agenesis accounts for about 5% of renal anomalies. Many cases result from complete involution in utero of a multicystic dysplastic kidney. It usually is accompanied by ureteral agenesis with absence of the ipsilateral trigone and ureteral orifice.

What causes congenital kidney?

It is likely that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to the formation of kidney and urinary tract abnormalities. The genetic factors involved in most cases of CAKUT are unknown. Syndromic CAKUT is caused by changes in the genes associated with the particular syndrome.

When is Potter’s syndrome Detected?

If not detected before birth (prenatally), then lack of urine production, specific (facial) features or difficulty breathing may be signs of Potter syndrome. A routine specialized imaging technique called a fetal ultrasound may detect Potter syndrome before birth.

Is VUR congenital?

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract and it is the most common urological anomaly in children. Primary VUR is a congenital condition caused by the abnormal development and malfunction of the ureterovesical junction (UVJ).

What is congenital nephrotic?

Congenital nephrotic syndrome, an inherited disorder characterized by protein in the urine and swelling of the body, occurs primarily in families of Finnish origin and develops shortly after birth. The disorder commonly results in infection, malnutrition and kidney failure.

What are the four causes of Potter sequence?

There are various causes of Potter sequence including failure of the kidneys to develop (bilateral renal agenesis), polycystic kidney diseases, prune belly syndrome, rupture of membranes surrounding the baby, and other kidney abnormalities.

What causes VUR in infants?

There are many reasons why a child may develop VUR. Some of the more common causes include: Being born with a neural tube defect like spina bifida. Having other urinary tract problems, such as posterior urethral valves, ureterocele, or ureter duplication.

What is Galloway Mowat syndrome?

Galloway-Mowat syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder that is characterized by a variety of physical and developmental abnormalities, particularly neurological abnormalities and early onset progressive kidney disease.

What causes congenital nephrotic?

Mutations in the NPHS1 or NPHS2 gene cause most cases of congenital nephrotic syndrome. These genes provide instructions for making proteins that are found in the kidneys .

What is Potter’s syndrome?

Potter syndrome and Potter phenotype refers to a group of findings associated with a lack of amniotic fluid and kidney failure in an unborn infant. Amniotic fluid not only protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes, it also is circulated by the fetus every 3 hours.

Why is it called Potter syndrome?

Edith Potter, who noticed that these newborns had an identifiable physical appearance: wrinkly skin, low-set ears, flat nose and chin, and widely separated eyes with epicanthal folds, or folds in the inner corners of the eyes. This combination of physical characteristics is known as Potter facies.

What is VUJ stone?

What is the UVJ? The ureterovesical junction (UVJ) is the area where the lower end of the ureter meets the urinary bladder. Any kidney stone that is located in the ureter close to the bladder (within 1-2 cm of the bladder) is called a UVJ stone.

What is Pelviectasis?

Pyelectasis, or pelviectasis, is when urine gathers in the center of the kidney, called the pelvis. This makes the kidney larger than normal. This condition can affect one or both kidneys.

How do you treat VUR in babies?

How is VUR treated?

  1. Observation: Children with lower grades of VUR may be safely watched under their doctors’ care.
  2. Preventative antibiotics (prophylaxis): Some children are given a low dose of an antibiotic every day to decrease the risk of developing a UTI while waiting to see if they outgrow the VUR.

Can VUR be cured?

Secondary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is treated by removing the blockage or improving how the bladder empties which is causing the reflux. Treatment may include: Surgery to remove a blockage or correct an abnormal bladder or ureter. Antibiotics to prevent or treat a UTI.

What are the causes of non-hereditary congental anomalies?

Hello, Non-hereditary means that the embryological abnormality that causes the resultant anomaly that is present at birth or congenitally occurs spontaneously in the course of rapid cell divisions taking place in the developing fetus or as an adverse response on cell division to some stressful environmental factor or ingested drugs or chemical exposures, etc. Thus it is not a genetically driven abnormality passed directly to the embryo inherent to originally, undamaged genes contributed by

What are the different types of congenital abnormalities?

Congenital abnormalities, called malformations, are conditions affecting the form and function of the nervous system. There are numerous variations of congenital malformations of the bone and soft tissue of the head and spine, including neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, encephaloceles, Chiari malformations and arachnoid cysts.

How does the kidney affect the bladder?

Infections: Urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can cause issues in the kidneys,urethra,or bladder.

  • Structural problems: Sometimes babies are born with birth defects that affect the way their urinary tract is formed.
  • Kidney stones: These masses form when waste products in urine clump together.
  • What is congenital absence of kidney?

    Renal agenesis is a condition in which a newborn is missing one or both kidneys. Unilateral renal agenesis (URA) is the absence of one kidney. Bilateral renal agenesis (BRA) is the absence of both