What is aflatoxin M1 in milk?

What is aflatoxin M1 in milk?

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed (Ardic et al., 2009). AFM1 has a potency approximately one order of magnitude lower than that of AFB1 (Prandini et al., 2009).

Can aflatoxin be found in milk?

Aflatoxins are the most carcinogenic natural compounds known. Milk that is sold commercially is checked for aflatoxin M1. When aflatoxin M1 is found at concentrations of 0.5 parts per billion (ppb) or greater, the milk is discarded because it cannot be used for products that go into the human food supply.

How do you measure aflatoxin in milk?

While these test strip techniques are handy in testing raw cow’s milk, the preferred methods for the analysis of aflatoxin in milk remain lab-based and include enzyme-lined immunosorbent assays (ELISA), fluorescence spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

What are aflatoxins in milk?

Aflatoxins (AFs) are mycotoxins produced by some species of Aspergillus. In dairy cows, ingested AFB1 is metabolized into carcinogenic AFM1 which is eliminated through milk, thus posing a risk for consumer health.

How do you prevent aflatoxin in milk?

Reducing of aflatoxin M-1 content during processing of milk For instance, in a study, it was shown that pasteurization at 62°C for 30 min could reduce the AFM-1 content in milk by 32%. Another study showed that heating might decrease AFs-content by 12%–35% (depending on the conditions).

How is aflatoxin M1 produced?

Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin produced by molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which can contaminate grains, legumes, tree nuts, maize, and groundnuts. In addition, when dairy-producing animals consume aflatoxin-contaminated feed, a metabolite, aflatoxin M1, is excreted in the milk.

Which form of aflatoxin can affect humans through milk?

Milk is among the important sources of aflatoxins in the human food chain. While both aflatoxins M1 and B1 can be present in milk, the former is about ten times more abundant.

How do you measure aflatoxin levels?

Several methods including thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectroscopy, enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), and electrochemical immunosensor, among others, have been described for detecting and quantifying aflatoxins in foods.

How do you test for aflatoxin?

Most testing for aflatoxin in market channels is done with immunoassay test kits. An antibody binds with toxin that has been extracted with a solvent from a small ground sample.

What is the maximum permissible limit of aflatoxin in milk?

According to FSSAI standards, the permissible limit of aflatoxins in milk is 0.5 µg/kg.

What is the limit of aflatoxin?

The United states Food and Drug Administration has set a maximum permissible level of 20 μg/kg for total aflatoxins in all foodstuff, while in China, the legal limit for AFB 1 contamination in corn is 50 μg/kg (Table 4).

What is the maximum acceptable level of aflatoxins?

According to the FDA regulatory levels for aflatoxin in the feed, the maximum allowable aflatoxin levels are 300, 100 and 20 μg/kg for finishing cattle, swine and poultry, breeding cattle, and other animals respectively [16].

What type of food hazard is it when you expect aflatoxin in raw milk sample?

Aflatoxins are genotoxic and carcinogenic; therefore, there is no intake level, which can be considered risk free (EFSA Scientific Committee, 2007). The safe dose proposed by Kuiper-Goodman (1990) was derived from the dose causing 50% of the animals developing tumor (TD50) divided by a safety factor of 50,000.

How do you detect aflatoxin in food?

What is aflatoxin B1 B2 G1 G2?

Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which commonly contaminate a variety of animal food. Aflatoxins are proven to be mutagens, carcinogens and teratogens.

How do you remove aflatoxin?

The most common way to remove AFB1 using physical methods is to heat and use gamma rays. Aflatoxins are highly thermostable. Studies have shown that AFB1 levels are significantly reduced by heating at 100 and 150°C for 90 minutes, respectively, at 41.9 and 81.2%.

What is total aflatoxin?

Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of a class of fungi (such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus). They are highly carcinogenic and are found mainly in grains, peanuts, nuts, cottonseeds, animal feed, vegetable oils, as well as animal tissues and blood.

What foods are high in aflatoxin?

The foods and crops most likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin include:

  • peanuts.
  • corn.
  • milk and cheese (rarely, meat can also become contaminated due to the spreading in aflatoxin in livestock feed)
  • nuts (especially almonds, Brazil nuts, pecans, pistachios and walnuts)
  • grains including quinoa (8)
  • soybeans.
  • figs.

How do you remove aflatoxin from food?

Oxidizing agents readily destroy aflatoxin, and treatment with hydrogen peroxide may be useful. Treatment of defatted oilseed meals with ammonia can reduce aflatoxin content to very low or undetectable levels with only moderate damage to protein quality.

Where is aflatoxin G1 found?

Aflatoxin G1 is one type of aflatoxins occuring in nature. It is produced by molds, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are hepatogenic, teratogenic, imunosuppressive, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites found in feeds, nuts, wine-grapes, spices, and other grain crops.

What is Ridascreen® aflatoxin M1?

For further information, please see our data privacy statement. What is bigger, 2 or 8? Please leave this field empty. RIDASCREEN® Aflatoxin M1 is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk powder.

Aflatoxin M1 is produced as a metabolite of aflatoxin B1. It is secreted with the milk after feeding of aflatoxin B1 containing feed to lactating cows. As aflatoxin M1 is relatively stable towards the pasteurizing process, not only a comprehensive routine check of the raw materials to be processed is required, but also of the final products.

How to detect AFM1 in dairy products?

There are several methods for the detection of AFM1 in dairy products. Usually, the analytical procedures go through the following stages: sampling, extraction, clean-up, determination and quantification.

Where can I find aflatoxins?

1 Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Piacenza, Agricultural Faculty, 29100 Piacenza, Via Emilia Parmense 84, Italy. aldo.prandini@unicatt.it Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites found in foods and feeds.